Black holes are like a wild beast in this universe and every year the mind-blowing and amazing findings by researchers about them expand our view and knowledge on different universe processes that they(black holes) influence. No one can escape from their gravitational power. Here you will learn the most fascinating discoveries and knowledgeable findings or facts about the black holes that happened this year and enhanced our understanding of the universe.
Aliens using black hole power
Firstly scientists were hypothesizing about this observation and it remained until their assumptions were somewhat satisfied by the relevant information. In August 2021, some astronomers of Taiwan suggested that aliens possibly be using the energy of black holes with the help of a specific hypothetical huge structure known as Dyson spheres, a sphere that encircles stars completely and captures their large part of power output.
Black holes put out large amounts of energy because of their dependency on surrounding material. A team of astronomers suggests in this research that extraterrestrial species might place some kind of orbiting spaceships around the back hole, with a coating of solar panels so that energy of black hole can be collected. As black holes are very much similar to stars but are smaller, this helps them to save material for construction, thus allowing them to focus on gathering a large amount of energy from energetic blasts of black holes.
Echoes of light from black hole proved the theory of relativity
In July 2021, astronomers observed X Rays coming out from a huge black hole in the center of Zwicly, which is a spiral galaxy and is 1.8 billion light-years away from the milky way. During this research, astronomers not only successfully traced light coming from the front of a black hole but also somehow managed to find strange echoes of light coming from behind the black hole, something that they were not able to do initially.
These echoes were observed to be originating from the back of a black hole, this incident suggests that this huge thing of the universe was twisting spacetime so much that light was being attracted from one side to the other of the hole. This all process is following Einstein’s theory of general relativity but till then was not detected.
Quickest revolving black hole
Black holes with every finding provide new insights into the universe. In February 2021, researchers started looking again at the Cygnus X-1 system. They revisited their approximated properties of the cosmic beast i.e a black hole present just a mid of that Cygnus X-1 system. Cygnus X-1 black hole was discovered 60 years ago and was around 20 times that of the sun in terms of mass. Its spinning speed was near the speed of light which set a new record of black hole rotation. The black hole in this system is located around 7,200 light-years away and is slowly eating its near star providing physicists a new perception of such processes.
Hawking black hole area theorem proved by LIGO
In June 2021, researchers of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) observed two supermassive black holes merging into one structure. Waves of gravitation were observed to be developed as those two black holes moved and coiled over each other with very intense speed. The resulting black hole was found to have a larger surface area than the combination of the earlier two’s. This helped in satisfying the assumption from the 1971 conjecture of Stephen Hawking called the black hole area theorem.
This theorem was derived using Einstein’s theory of general relativity and entropy’s processes and states that the surface area of a black hole can’t decrease over time. However, as quantum mechanics says black holes can shrink and evaporate, but this theory of quantum mechanics creates confusion about how to cope with Hawking’s law that their surface area then has to be increased.
Black Hole puts storm in the beginning
Every galaxy contains at least one black hole. But it is unclear how a black hole enhanced its galactic host. The research was released in June 2021, showing intense speedy winds being blown from a galaxy that was around 13 billion years old, as old as the universe is. This is a galactic wind that comes out from holes as they eat up gas and material near them. After this, winds at around 1.8 million km/h speed spread material all over the galaxy and halt the star formation. This showed galaxies and their black holes had very old bonding.
The huge black hole inside a small galaxy
In December 2021, a small galaxy orbiting at the periphery of the Milky way was found to have a huge black hole at its center. That galaxy is named Leo I Dwarf and somewhat 820,000 light-years away from earth. This galaxy is 50 times smaller than the milky way and hosts an outsized black hole that has a mass comparable to another different black hole present at the center of the milky way. Astronomers were confused to understand how such a large hole found its way and resided in such a small galaxy. This research is still going on and knowing accurately what this means for a black hole will take some time.
The wandering black holes can reside in our galaxy
In August 2021, twelve supermassive black holes were observed roaming around the periphery of the milky way. This was found when researchers observed results from new simulations of galaxy collisions. Such incidents trigger gravitational force to cause huge black holes millions and billions heavier than the sun to wander in intense depths of the cosmos. Few of them subsequently then settle in halos of galaxies like in our milky way which is expected to host around 12 on an average. Astronomers in this research are still trying to find lost black holes to check whether their simulations were correct.
Nearest black hole couple discovered
In December, scientists’ telescopes captured a pair(of a black hole) near each other. They are in a constellation named Aquarius and spin around each other 89 million light-years away. Before this, such a system was observed at a large distance, almost five times farther than this couple. This allowed scientists to study this pair easily. The larger black hole in this couple holds a mass of around one fifty-four million to that of the sun and the smaller one is 6.3 million times huge. Both orbits each other at a distance of 1,600 light-years, which is very small in cosmic terms and the indication they will possibly merge into one giant black hole in upcoming years.
Neutron star merge with black hole
LIGO researched a lot about black holes in 2021. The researcher of this organization during their study of black holes observed black holes merging with neutron stars. When a star explodes as a supernova, black holes and neutron stars are the possible end results. LIGO earlier had evidence of this merging process but this year the two signals proved that they were right. The first one involved a black hole having mass six times that of the sun eating a neutron star while in another case a black hole nine times the mass of the sun merged with a neutron star. These two findings proved that neutron stars and black holes can merge into one another.
Spaghettification of star by black hole
Spaghettification is a process in which a star pulls apart into long thin strands and the black holes suck it when it tries to come in the periphery of a black hole. Light is produced during this process as the material gets heated up due to friction. It helps astronomers to capture the whole process. In May 2021, researchers for the first time detected a star that was shredded by a black hole and eventually eaten up by a black beast. This incident happened 750 million light-years from Earth. Instead of spaghettification, observations helped scientists to develop helpful visualisation of stellar ingestion.